• Giacomo Breda

Some ideas on Basel 3

Last steps in Basel III reforms with important news. All revisions are in the field of the standardized approach, internal ratings-based (IRB) approach for credit risk, credit valuation adjustment (CVA) risk framework, the leverage ratio framework, and an important introduction of a leverage buffer for Global Systemically Important Banks (G-SIBs). The revised standards will take effect from First of January 2022 and will be phased in over five years. The revisions to the standardized approach to credit risk include the re-calibrating the risk weights for rated exposures to banks, a specific risk weight for exposures to small and medium-sized enterprises. The revision includes a standalone treatment of exposures to project finance more risk-sensitive approaches for exposures for residential and commercial real estate, subordinated debt, equity exposures and unrated exposures to banks. The IRB approach for credit risk has been amended with:

• removing the option to use the advanced IRB approach for certain asset classes, like exposures to large and mid-sized corporates, banks and other financial institutions;

• adopting "input" floors;

• providing more specification of parameter estimation practices to reduce risk-weighted asset variability.

The CVA risk framework has been revised to enhance its risk sensitivity by taking into account the exposure component of CVA risk. This tool has been made more strong removing the use of an IRB approach, leaving a standardized approach and a basic approach, which have been re-focused to align with the revised market risk framework. Revised CVA risk framework allows banks with an aggregate notional amount of uncleared derivatives less than or equal to 100 billion euros to calculate their CVA capital charge as a simple multiplier of its counter-party credit risk charge. Leverage ratio framework introduces a further leverage ratio buffer for G-SIBs, which must be met with Tier 1 capital. The buffer is set at 50% of a G-SIB's risk-weighted higher-loss absorbency requirements. This buffer does not apply to the no-G-SIB banks. Capital distribution restraints will be imposed on a G-SIB that fails to meet its leverage ratio buffer requirement. Some amendments are made to the leverage ratio exposure measure in the change of the way in which derivatives are reflected in the measure. With this amendments, Basel III reforms replace the existing (and old) Basel II floor with a new output floor ratio based on the revised Basel III. It's the time. This new output floor provides a risk-based backstop that limits the extent to which banks can lower their capital requirements by using internal models. It will not be possible to reduce the capital charge associated with risk-weighted assets to below 72.5% of the charge that would arise under the standardized approach. It is expected that this requirement will become capital limiting for 20% of banks (many European banks). So banks will be required to disclose their risk-weighted assets based on the revised standardized approaches. The output floor requirements will be phased in from January 1, 2022, until January 1, 2027. National regulators will have the discretion to apply a transitional cap during the phase-in period. In next years there will be huge impacts of the Basel III leverage ratio requirements on the provision by banks to clients.

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